Hitler - Early Years And His Rise As Leader Of ... [Extra Quality]
Adolf Hitler's rise to power began in the newly established Weimar Republic in September 1919 when Hitler joined the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (DAP; German Workers' Party). He rose to a place of prominence in the early years of the party. Being one of its best speakers, he was made the party leader after he threatened to otherwise leave.
Hitler - Early years and his rise as leader of ...
Once the Nazi dictatorship was firmly established, the Nazis themselves created a mythology surrounding their rise to power. German propaganda described this time period as either the Kampfzeit (the time of struggle) or the Kampfjahre (years of struggle).
President Kennedy's death caused enormous sadness and grief among all Americans. Most people still remember exactly where they were and what they were doing when they heard the news. Hundreds of thousands of people gathered in Washington for the President's funeral, and millions throughout the world watched it on television. As the years have gone by and other presidents have written their chapters in history, John Kennedy's brief time in office stands out in people's memories for his leadership, personality, and accomplishments. Many respect his coolness when faced with difficult decisions--like what to do about Soviet missiles in Cuba in 1962. Others admire his ability to inspire people with his eloquent speeches. Still others think his compassion and his willingness to fight for new government programs to help the poor, the elderly and the ill were most important. Like all leaders, John Kennedy made mistakes, but he was always optimistic about the future. He believed that people could solve their common problems if they put their country's interests first and worked together.
In July 1921, he took over the leadership of the party, by then renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), and, less than 12 years later, it had become the largest party in Germany and Hitler was Reich Chancellor. Why then did Hitler choose to join the NSDAP and effectively adopt politics as a career, and what personal qualities, abilities and political opinions did he bring with him from his previous life, which may help to explain his choice and his subsequent career?
Adolf Hitler as a schoolboy (top row centre) in 1899 Hitler was born in Braunau am Inn on the Austro-German border on 20th April 1889. His family background has given rise to much psychological speculation. His father, a customs official who died when Hitler was 13, was cold and strict, while his mother was gentle and loving and pampered her son, who adored her. Hitler was clearly intelligent but bored by much of his formal education, except for history, which was taught with a strong German nationalist bias.
He was growing up at a time when the German-speaking parts of the Austro-Hungarian (Habsburg) empire were saturated with Pan German ethnic nationalism. Although extreme ethnic nationalism was a general feature of early 20th century Europe, it was particularly virulent in Austria because of the growing threat to German dominance posed by the rise of other nationalities within the empire, in particular the Czechs.
November 9, 1923: A coup organized by the NSDAP in Munich was suppressed by the police. The main Nazi leaders were arrested and jailed, or forced to flee. The party was banned throughout Germany and it seemed to have been dismantled; it appeared to have failed to gain more than a regional following in Bavaria. At the end of the February 1924 trial, Hitler was sentenced to four years in prison; however, he used the hearing as a nation-wide grandstand, in order to impose his standing among the important members of the radical right (Kershaw, 1998).
It was not a foregone conclusion in German history that Adolf Hitler, a back-room orator of the 1920s Munich beer halls, would take power some ten years later. His nomination to the position of Chancellor on January 30, 1933, was the result of particular circumstances, but also of a miscalculation of the part of the conservatives, who thought they could use and control him. Indeed, the leaders of these conservative elites were deeply mistaken about the personality and ambition of this extraordinary, unpredictable and violent man, who quicky escaped their control.
During the next four years, Hitler enjoyed a dazzling string of domestic and international successes, outwitting rival political leaders abroad just as he had defeated his opposition at home. In 1935, he abandoned the Versailles Treaty and began to build up the army by conscripting five times its permitted number. He persuaded Great Britain to allow an increase in the naval building program, and in March 1936, he occupied the demilitarized Rhineland without meeting opposition. He began building up the Luftwaffe and supplied military aid to Francoist forces in Spain, which brought about the Spanish fascist victory in 1939.
The instability and insecurity of the 1920s and 1930s gave rise to political extremism in many European countries. People looked to authoritarian leadership as a political alternative. Fascist leader Benito Mussolini came to power in Italy in 1922 and almost all aspects of Italian life came under state control.
The violent repression of the communist movement led to a very early and stark division between the main left-wing parties, the SPD and the KPD. This significant fragmentation on the left may have helped the rise of fascism and right-wing extremism. After 1919, the KPD became increasingly extremist, going beyond what Liebknecht and Luxemburg had envisioned. The left was, then, significantly fragmented and weakened, as well as incapable of coming together to stop the rise of fascism, as happened in other European countries.
To evaluate the threat posed by terrorism, we compiled a data set of 893 incidents that occurred in the United States between January 1994 and May 8, 2020.9 (The link to the methodology can be found at the end of the brief.) These incidents included both attacks and foiled plots. We coded the ideology of the perpetrators into one of five categories: ethnonationalist, left-wing, religious, right-wing, and other (which included motivations that did not fit into any of the categories). All of the religious attacks and plots in the CSIS data set were committed by terrorists who ascribed to a Salafi-jihadist ideology.This section analyzes the data in two parts: terrorist incidents and fatalities. The data show three notable trends. First, right-wing attacks and plots accounted for the majority of all terrorist incidents in the United States since 1994. In particular, they made up a large percentage of incidents in the 1990s and 2010s. Second, the total number of right-wing attacks and plots has grown substantially during the past six years. In 2019, for example, right-wing extremists perpetrated nearly two-thirds of the terrorist attacks and plots in the United States, and they committed over 90 percent of the attacks and plots between January 1 and May 8, 2020. Third, although religious extremists were responsible for the most fatalities because of the 9/11 attacks, right-wing perpetrators were responsible for more than half of all annual fatalities in 14 of the 21 years during which fatal attacks occurred.
Times correspondent Cyril Brown spends most of the piece documenting the factors behind Hitler's early rise in Bavaria, Germany, including his oratorical skills. For example: "He exerts an uncanny control over audiences, possessing the remarkable ability to not only rouse his hearers to a fighting pitch of fury, but at will turn right around and reduce the same audience to docile coolness."
SECRETARY POWELL: Good morning, everyone. I was pleased to welcome Mayor Giuliani and Abe Foxman of the ADL, as well Congressman Chris Smith, who just returned from an important conference on anti-Semitism hosted by OSCE. Mayor Giuliani led our delegation and it was a very successful meeting, where the conference focused on the problem of anti-Semitism in Europe and, frankly, throughout the world. And the Mayor gave me a very positive report and I'll let him talk to that report in a moment. And I was also pleased to learn that there is such interest in this subject and the conference was so successful that there is every desire to hold another conference on anti-Semitism next year in Berlin. And I hope that the OSCE will formally approve that proposal and we can have a similar event next year in Berlin. And we'll do everything to make sure that we have a strong and powerful delegation representing us at that meeting as well. And so, gentlemen, I thank you for representing the United States in such an effective way, and, Rudy, I invite you to say a few words. MR. GIULIANI: Thank you very much, Mr. Secretary. The first thing we should really note is that this conference would not have taken place without the direct intervention and very, very strong support of Secretary Powell, and as well as very, very hard and effective work done by the State Department. This was not exactly a topic that there was an overwhelming desire to discuss, but because of the hard work of the United States, the Secretary, the President and the State Department, for the first time, the OSCE held a conference on anti-Semitism. And you couldn't miss the significance of the fact that it was being held right essentially inside the square in which Hitler announced the annexation of Austria. And you kept saying to yourself, "Well, why are we still discussing this?" But we still have to discuss it because, in certain areas of Europe, anti-Semitism has gotten worse. The good news is that the efforts of the United States and the hard work that's been done over the last 4, 5, 6 months, led to a great deal of support to institutionalizing an analysis of anti-Semitism within the OSCE. And to that end, Germany offered to hold a follow-up conference next year to discuss in Berlin the progress that's been made in setting up statistics, passing hate crimes legislation, and looking at where there have been successes and where there have been failures in reducing and eliminating anti-Semitism in Europe. And that was supported by Russia, was supported by France and other countries. And now, of course, it has to be done officially, but that would be, in and of itself, really a great step. A first conference in Vienna and a second conference a year later in Berlin -- you can't miss the significance of discussing the progress being made in eliminating anti-Semitism in Berlin. And I want to thank Congressman Smith and Congressman Hastings, who accompanied us and worked very, very hard. And Congressman Smith is now going to the parliamentary assembly in Rotterdam. And I want to thank Abe Foxman and all of the NGOs that were there that participated and really represented the United States in a very effective way. And again, Mr. Secretary, without you and all of the terrific work done by the State Department in preparing us, we never would have gotten to this stage of their agreeing with us. SECRETARY POWELL: Thank you. Abe, would you like to say a word? MR. FOXMAN: Yes. The bad news is that there is a need in our lifetime, in our time today, to deal with anti-Semitism as a clear and present issue, and not a historical fact. The good news is that, unlike 50 years ago or 60 years ago, there is enough leadership in the international community, starting with the United States, to urge and to inspire the good people to come together to deal with it as a present problem. I am a Holocaust survivor, so for me to stand in Vienna and to listen to voice after voice of countries who, only 50, 60 years ago were part of the problem, to begin to address the issue of anti-Semitism today is very encouraging, for, to me, it says that for my children and grandchildren they will not have to ask the question, "Why, why was the world silent again?" Nor will they have to ask the question, "What if? What if the good people, what if the responsible leadership, stood up to say no?" And for those of us there, Mr. Secretary, to know that it was your leadership and American leadership that challenged the European countries to stand up, to stand up, unfortunately again, but to stand up, and as the Mayor said, ironically, the first coming together to face anti-Semitism today in Vienna, the second coming together in Berlin. But it is a very pointed message of history for the future. So thank you again for your leadership and thank you for your standing up. SECRETARY POWELL: Thanks, Abe. Chris. MR. SMITH: Thank you, Mr. Secretary. I want to thank you, Secretary Powell, President Bush, Rudy Giuliani and our delegation. The United States is leading the world in trying to stop this, unfortunately, this rising tide of hate called anti-Semitism. We've seen it often under the pretext of disagreeing with policies in the Middle East. There has been this unfortunate rise in hatred towards Jews in Europe, in Canada and in the United States. This unprecedented conference, which was an unmitigated success, put all of the countries of the OSCE -- that's 55 countries -- on record in not only opposing, but taking concrete steps to mitigate and hopefully end this cancer. I want to thank again the Secretary for his leadership. Vienna, Berlin -- I'm leaving for Rotterdam, as was mentioned just a moment ago. The parliamentary assembly, which is the part of the OSCE where all of the parliamentarians get together, we will be raising the issue of anti-Semitism over this weekend to keep this issue alive so that we can stop this hate in the world. SECRETARY POWELL: Thank you. A question or two? QUESTION: A question for Mayor Giuliani. QUESTION: Mr. Secretary -- do you want to ask about this subject? QUESTION: Yes. Mayor Giuliani, you said moments ago that anti-Semitism is rising in some European countries. Can you explain why you think this is? And secondly, there is a new artwork at the Whitney Museum, on a different note -- wanted to get your comments on that -- lampooning you, apparently. MR. GIULIANI: Well, I'm really not an art critic. If it was an opera, if it was an opera, I'd be able to comment on it. But works of art I'm not -- I'm not an expert on. And I haven't seen it so I don't know what it is. The conference was, I think, enormously important because it focused on a subject that there was a resistance to discussing, and we got a tremendous amount of support. I think we were very, very strengthened by that, but we also realized that a tremendous amount of work is going to have to be done between now and next year. And the Secretary and the State Department are critical to that. So I believe this can have a very, very big impact, but it's going to have to be sustained over a long period of time. And there's no question -- and the conference was clear about this -- that, in essence -- this may be oversimplifying it, but you're dealing with two different types of anti-Semitism: the traditional 2,000-year-long or more anti-Semitism that has plagued Europe and still exists, and then the rising anti-Semitism is the anti-Semitism that disguises itself as anti-Zionism and then, you know, expresses itself in burning down synagogues and attacking people. And that has to be dealt with. And it's perfectly fine to have a political debate, but it's not perfectly fine to want to see the destruction of a people or to begin physically attacking them. And different European countries are at different stages of dealing with it, some more effectively than others. SECRETARY POWELL: Barry. QUESTION: Can we catch up, please, on Liberia -- the diplomacy going on? I wouldn't imagine the U.S. is trying to find asylum for Taylor because you want him tried as a war criminal, but can you bring us up to date? Will troops go there? What about the Taylor situation? SECRETARY POWELL: The President, as you have heard, is exploring all of the options -- political options, diplomatic options and military options as well. We have provided the President no recommendation yet, and therefore he has not made a decision. We believe strongly that President Taylor should leave, and I have been in touch with leaders in the region and I've also been in touch with Secretary General Kofi Annan, and I'm expecting to talk to him again today. We also realize that there is a severe humanitarian crisis emerging in Monrovia and in other parts of Liberia that has to be dealt with, and we are concerned also about the security of our embassy officials. So all of these factors are being taken into consideration. We'll be discussing it among the national security team members today. But we have made no recommendation to the President yet, and therefore the President has not yet made a decision. All of the what ifs and wherefores in your question will be dealt with as we move forward, and we'll make announcements when it is appropriate and we're ready to make announcements. QUESTION: Mr. Secretary, apparently in Baghdad today, and officials here confirmed that there will be a reward announced for the capture of Saddam Hussein or proof that he is dead. Can you say why you had to go to this, and how long has that debate going on as to why you're going to this route? SECRETARY POWELL: It hasn't been a debate. We have always been considering this option, and after studying it and making sure that we had a proper basis for such an announcement, I signed off on the declaration this morning and Ambassador Bremer announced it in Baghdad. And I will confirm it. It's authority that we have and we are using that authority. We believe it's important to do everything we can to determine his whereabouts, whether he is alive or dead, in order to assist in stabilizing the situation and letting the people of Baghdad be absolutely sure that he's not coming back. And this is just another tool to be used for that purpose. QUESTION: Mr. Secretary, as you determine -- to go back to Liberia. As you determine what it is the U.S. should do, how critical is Charles Taylor's departure from the country in order for any mission to be successful in bringing stability to the country? SECRETARY POWELL: We believe stability will only come to the country with the departure of President Taylor. In some of the earlier negotiations that led to the ceasefire he agreed that that would be an appropriate step to take, and we hope it's a step that he will take at the appropriate time. I think it is important for him to depart. 041b061a72